known informally as asperatus clouds, this atmospheric phenomenon gets its name from the latin aspero, which roman poets used to describe the sea as it was roughened by the cold north wind.
though the cause of their formation remains unknown, it is likely that the undulating and lumpy underside is a result of warmer, moister air from above and colder, dryer air from below meeting at the boundary between the lower and middle atmosphere.
when high level wind passes over rolling terrain, you get the same wavy effect as on the surface of water. but despite their ominous appearance, asperatus clouds tend to dissipate without a storm forming.
photos by (click pic) ken prior and allan gathman in perthshire, scotland; bryan and cherry alexander in qaanaaq, greenland; ti cranium in ohio; robert lurie in cape town, south africa; witta priester in new zealand; jesse klein in wisconsin
Omfg what if you landed on a planet that supported life and the “humans” there were much more technologically advanced and they made you come back to life from your remains and you just woke up after death in a random ass planet.
Wouldn’t it be even more amazing if your remains landed on a different planet, with no life, but an atmosphere, and the biological material in your remains started life for an entire planet?
Eclipse at Moonset by Yuri Beletsky
A cold-atom ammeter
A superfluid current is only as strong as its weak link.
The experiment, which took place at a JQI lab on the NIST-Gaithersburg campus, involves cooling roughly 800,000 sodium atoms down to an extremely low temperature, around a decidedly chilly hundred billionths of a degree above absolute zero. At these temperatures, the atoms behave as matter waves, overlapping to form something called a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).
Katherine Johnson (born August 26, 1918) is an African-American physicist, space scientist, and mathematician
At NASA, Johnson started work in the all-male Flight Mechanics Branch and later moved to the Spacecraft Controls Branch. She calculated the trajectory for the space flight of Alan Shepard, the first American in space, in 1959 and the launch window for his 1961 Mercury mission.
Source: Leticia Johnson
Renowned physicist and university president Shirley Ann Jackson was born on August 5, 1946, in Washington, D.C., to George Hiter Jackson and Beatrice Cosby Jackson. When Jackson was a child, her mother would read her the biography of Benjamin Banneker, an African American scientist and mathematician who helped build Washington, D.C., and her father encouraged her interest in science by assisting her with projects for school. The Space Race of the late-1950s would also have an impact on Jackson as a child, spurring her interest in scientific investigation.
Jackson attended Roosevelt High School in Washington, D.C., where she took accelerated math and science classes. Jackson graduated as valedictorian in 1964 and encouraged by the assistant principal for boys at her high school, she applied to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Jackson was among the first African American students to attend MIT, and in her undergraduate class she was one of only two women.
In 1973, Jackson graduated from MIT with her Ph.D. degree in theoretical elementary particle physics, the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in physics in MIT’s history. Jackson worked on her thesis, entitled The Study of a Multiperipheral Model with Continued Cross-Channel Unitarity, under the direction of James Young, the first African American tenured full professor in the physics department at MIT. In 1975, the thesis was published inAnnals of Physics.
After receiving her degree, Jackson was hired as a research associate in theoretical physics at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, or Fermilab. While at Fermilab, Jackson studied medium to large subatomic particles, specifically hadrons, a subatomic particle with a strong nuclear force. Throughout the 1970s, Jackson would work in this area on Landau theories of charge density waves in one- and two-dimensions, as well as Tang-Mills gauge theories and neutrino reactions.
In 1974, after two years with the Fermilab, Jackson served as visiting science associate at the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Switzerland, and worked on theories of strongly interacting elementary particles. In 1975, Jackson returned to Fermilab, and was simultaneously elected to the MIT Corporation’s Board of Trustees. In 1976, Jackson began working on the technical staff for Bell Telephone laboratories in theoretical physics. Her research focused on the electronic properties of ceramic materials in hopes that they could act as superconductors of electric currents. While at Bell laboratories, Jackson met her future husband, physicist Morris A. Washington. That same year, she was appointed professor of physics at Rutgers University. In 1980, Jackson became the president of the National Society of Black Physicists and in 1985, she began serving as a member of the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology.
Stanford engineers have invented a wireless pressure sensor that has already been used to measure brain pressure in lab mice with brain injuries.
Stanford Chemical Engineering Professor Zhenan Bao points to a diagram of a rubber molecule, indicating the springy feature exploited by her team’s wireless pressure sensor. Credit: Stanford Engineering
The underlying technology has such broad potential that it could one day be used to create skin-like materials that can sense pressure, leading to prosthetic devices with the electronic equivalent of a sense of touch.
A nine-member research team led by Chemical Engineering Professor Zhenan Bao detailed two medical applications of this technology in Nature Communications.
In one simple demonstration they used this wireless pressure sensor to read a team member’s pulse without touching him.
In a more complex application, they used this wireless device to monitor the pressure inside the skull of a lab mouse, an achievement that could one day lead to better ways to treat human brain injuries.
Bao’s wireless sensor is made by placing a thin layer of specially designed rubber between two strips of copper. The copper strips act like radio antennas. The rubber serves as an insulator.
The technology involves beaming radio waves through this simple antenna-and-rubber sandwich. When the device comes under pressure, the copper antennas squeeze the rubber insulator and move infinitesimally closer together.
That tiny change in proximity alters the electrical characteristics of the device. Radio waves passing through the two antennas slow down in terms of frequency. When pressure is relaxed, the copper antennas move apart and the radio waves accelerate in frequency.
The engineers proved that this effect was measurable, giving them a way to gauge the pressure exerted on the device by tracking the frequency of radio waves passing through the device.